Mercury and Cyanide Use in Gold Mining

Gold mining, while a source of economic prosperity and cultural significance, often comes at a considerable environmental and human cost due to the use of toxic substances like mercury and cyanide. This article delves into the practices of using mercury and cyanide in gold mining, their environmental and health consequences, and efforts to mitigate the associated risks.

mercury and cianide

Mercury in Gold Mining

Mercury has been a key element in gold mining for centuries due to its unique ability to bind with gold and form an amalgam. This amalgamation process allows miners to extract gold particles from ore. However, the use of mercury in gold mining presents numerous environmental and health challenges:

1. Environmental Impact:

  • Water Pollution: Mercury used in gold mining can enter nearby water bodies, contaminating aquatic ecosystems. In water, mercury transforms into methylmercury, a highly toxic form that accumulates in fish and enters the food chain, posing risks to both aquatic life and humans who consume contaminated fish.
  • Soil Contamination: Mercury can also contaminate soil around mining sites, affecting vegetation and potentially leaching into groundwater.
  • Air Emissions: Mercury vapor is released during gold mining operations, contributing to air pollution. It eventually settles into water bodies and soil.

2. Health Risks:

  • Miner Exposure: Miners who handle mercury directly, often in informal and artisanal mining, are at high risk of mercury exposure. Chronic exposure can lead to mercury poisoning, causing neurological and cognitive impairments, kidney damage, and other serious health problems.
  • Community Exposure: Nearby communities may also be exposed to mercury through contaminated water, air, and food sources, leading to health concerns for residents.

Cyanide in Gold Mining

Cyanide is another widely used chemical in the gold mining industry. It is primarily used to dissolve and separate gold from ore. The process involves creating a cyanide solution, which allows for efficient gold extraction. However, cyanide poses significant environmental and health risks:

1. Environmental Impact:

  • Water Contamination: Cyanide solutions used in gold mining can spill or leak into water bodies, contaminating them and causing harm to aquatic life. Even small cyanide concentrations can be lethal to fish and other organisms.
  • Acid Mine Drainage: Cyanide use can contribute to the creation of acid mine drainage, which occurs when sulfide minerals in mine waste react with air and water, leading to the release of sulfuric acid. This acid can further exacerbate water pollution and harm ecosystems.

2. Health Risks:

  • Worker Exposure: Miners and workers in gold processing facilities may be exposed to cyanide during their operations, which can lead to a range of health problems, including nausea, headaches, and respiratory issues. Fatalities can occur in cases of severe exposure.
  • Community Impact: Communities near gold mines may face health risks from cyanide exposure through contaminated water sources or air emissions. This can lead to concerns and conflicts with mining companies.

Mitigating the Risks

Recognizing the severe environmental and health consequences of mercury and cyanide use in gold mining, efforts have been made to mitigate these risks:

1. Mercury-Free Gold Mining:

  • Alternative Techniques: Miners are encouraged to adopt alternative gold extraction techniques that do not rely on mercury. These methods include gravity concentration, flotation, and the use of more environmentally friendly reagents.
  • Education and Training: Informal and artisanal miners are provided with training and education on the risks of mercury exposure and the benefits of mercury-free mining practices.

2. Cyanide Management:

  • Safe Storage and Handling: Gold mining companies are implementing strict protocols for the safe storage, handling, and transportation of cyanide to minimize the risk of spills and accidents.
  • Treatment and Neutralization: Facilities are equipped with cyanide treatment systems to detoxify cyanide solutions before discharge. These systems help reduce the environmental impact of cyanide.

3. Regulations and Certification:

  • Environmental Regulations: Governments and international organizations have implemented regulations to limit the use of mercury and cyanide in gold mining. Compliance with these regulations is crucial for responsible mining.
  • Certification Programs: Certification schemes like the Responsible Jewellery Council (RJC) and the Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance (IRMA) promote responsible mining practices and encourage the use of safe and environmentally friendly technologies.

4. Research and Innovation:

  • Alternative Reagents: Ongoing research aims to develop alternative gold extraction reagents that are less harmful to the environment and human health.
  • Cleaner Technologies: Advances in mining technology are helping reduce the need for cyanide and mercury in gold extraction. Clean and sustainable technologies are being explored.


Gold mining has played a significant role in human history and continues to be an important industry today. However, the use of toxic substances like mercury and cyanide in the extraction process has substantial environmental and health implications.

Efforts to mitigate these risks involve the promotion of mercury-free mining practices, safe cyanide management, stringent regulations, and certification programs that encourage responsible mining. Research and innovation are driving the development of cleaner and more sustainable technologies for gold extraction.

Balancing the economic benefits of gold mining with the imperative to protect the environment and human health remains a complex challenge. However, by fostering responsible practices and embracing technological advancements, the industry can strive to minimize its impact and ensure the long-term sustainability of gold mining.