Where Does Coal Come From?

Coal is a fossil fuel that has played a significant role in shaping the modern world. It has fueled industrial revolutions, powered electricity generation, and driven economic growth for centuries. But where does coal come from, and how did it become such a vital resource? In this article, we will explore the origins of coal, its various uses, the four primary types of coal, and the methods employed to extract this valuable energy source from the Earth’s crust.

where does coal come from
Image by Ludwig Willimann from Pixabay

What is Coal?

To understand where coal comes from, it’s essential to comprehend its origins and formation. Coal is a sedimentary rock that contains the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. These plants, primarily ferns, trees, and other vegetation, thrived in swampy forests during the Carboniferous period, about 360 to 300 million years ago. Over time, these ancient plants died and accumulated in these wet environments.

Formation of Coal

The process of coal formation is fascinating and spans millions of years. It begins with the accumulation of organic materials, such as dead plants, in swampy areas. Over time, as more layers of plants and organic material accumulate, they are subjected to various geological processes, including pressure and heat, which gradually transform them into coal.

  1. Accumulation of Organic Material: It starts with the accumulation of dead plants in swampy forests. These plants are primarily composed of carbon, which is a crucial element in coal formation.
  2. Burial and Compression: As more plant material accumulates, it gets buried under layers of dirt and rock. The weight of these overlying layers exerts immense pressure on the plant matter below.
  3. Heat and Pressure: The immense pressure and heat from the Earth’s crust gradually transform the buried plant material into peat, the earliest precursor of coal. Peat is soft, spongy, and not yet considered true coal.
  4. Formation of Coal: Over millions of years, as the burial, pressure, and heat intensify, peat undergoes further transformation into lignite, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, and eventually anthracite coal. These stages represent the progressive alteration of the plant material, with anthracite being the most carbon-rich and energy-dense form of coal.

The result is a combustible and energy-rich material with varying properties, depending on the degree of compression and carbon content.

What is Coal Used For?

Coal has a wide range of uses that have shaped human civilization and continue to be influential in the modern era. Some of the primary applications of coal include:

  1. Electricity Generation: One of the most significant uses of coal is in power generation. Coal-fired power plants use coal to produce steam, which drives turbines that generate electricity. In many countries, coal remains a crucial source of electrical power.
  2. Industrial Processes: Coal is used in various industrial processes, such as manufacturing steel and cement. The high heat generated by burning coal makes it an indispensable resource in these industries.
  3. Heating and Residential Use: Historically, coal was used for heating homes and businesses. While this use has declined significantly, it is still prevalent in some regions, particularly in parts of Asia.
  4. Transportation: Steam engines powered by coal played a pivotal role in early transportation, including trains and ships. Although coal has been largely replaced by other fuels in transportation, its historical importance in this sector cannot be understated.
  5. Chemical Production: Coal is a source of various chemicals and byproducts, including coal tar, which is used in the production of dyes, drugs, and chemical products.
  6. Direct Combustion: In some regions, coal is directly burned for heating and cooking, especially in households that lack access to modern energy sources.
  7. Historical and Cultural Significance: Coal has cultural and historical significance, often appearing in literature, art, and as a symbol of the Industrial Revolution’s impact on society.

These various uses have made coal a valuable and versatile resource throughout history, but its environmental impact and declining use in favor of cleaner energy sources have raised questions about its long-term sustainability.

4 Types of Coal

Coal exists in several forms, each with distinct properties and energy content. The four primary types of coal, ranked from lowest to highest carbon content, are:

  1. Lignite: Lignite is the lowest rank of coal and is often referred to as “brown coal.” It contains around 25-35% carbon and has a relatively high moisture content. Lignite is soft and has a lower energy content compared to other coal types. It is mainly used for electricity generation and in industrial processes.
  2. Sub-Bituminous Coal: Sub-bituminous coal contains 35-45% carbon and has a lower moisture content than lignite. It is used in power plants for electricity generation and has a slightly higher energy content than lignite.
  3. Bituminous Coal: Bituminous coal is the most commonly used type of coal globally. It contains about 45-86% carbon and has moderate moisture content. It is widely used in electricity generation, industrial processes, and heating.
  4. Anthracite Coal: Anthracite is the highest rank of coal, containing 86-98% carbon and very low moisture content. It is known for its high energy content and is primarily used for heating and in industrial applications where a high heat output is required.

Each type of coal has its unique properties and suitability for different applications. The higher the carbon content and energy content, the more valuable the coal becomes for specific uses.

How is Coal Extracted?

Coal extraction, often referred to as coal mining, involves the removal of coal deposits from the Earth’s crust. The process can vary significantly depending on factors like the depth of the coal seam, the geology of the area, and the available technology. There are several methods for coal extraction:

  1. Surface Mining:
    • Strip Mining: In this method, the earth and rock covering the coal deposit, known as overburden, are removed in layers to expose the coal. Large machines, such as draglines or shovels, are used in this process. Strip mining is common in regions with shallow coal deposits.
    • Open-Pit Mining: Similar to strip mining, open-pit mining is used when coal deposits are relatively shallow and spread over a large area. It involves creating a stepped, terraced pit to access the coal.
  2. Underground Mining:
    • Room and Pillar Mining: In this method, miners create a network of rooms or chambers underground, leaving pillars of coal to support the roof. It is a common technique used in bituminous coal mines.
    • Longwall Mining: Longwall mining is a more efficient form of underground mining, particularly suited for thick coal seams. A longwall shearer cuts coal from the face, and hydraulic supports advance as mining progresses, allowing for continuous extraction.
    • Shaft Mining: This method is employed to access deep coal seams. Vertical or inclined shafts are constructed to transport miners and equipment to the coal seam. Once reached, coal is extracted from the seam and transported to the surface.
  3. Mountaintop Removal Mining: This controversial mining method involves removing mountaintops to access coal deposits beneath. It has significant environmental and social impacts and is a subject of debate and regulation.
  4. Highwall Mining: Highwall mining is an extension of surface mining that allows access to coal seams that were previously uneconomical to reach. It involves remotely operated equipment to extract coal from exposed seams.

Coal mining is often accompanied by challenges such as environmental impacts, safety concerns for miners, and the need for land reclamation after mining operations have ceased. Regulations and sustainability efforts aim to address these challenges and mitigate the environmental and social impacts of coal mining.


Coal, a product of ancient swampy forests and geological processes that unfolded over millions of years, has been a crucial energy source for human civilization. Its formation from plant material buried deep within the Earth has given us a range of coal types, each with varying properties and suitability for different applications. Despite its environmental and health concerns, coal continues to play a role in various sectors, from electricity generation to industrial processes. Understanding where coal comes from, its different types, and the methods of extraction helps us appreciate the historical, cultural, and industrial significance of this fossil fuel in our world. As the global energy landscape evolves toward cleaner alternatives, the role of coal in our future will continue to be a subject of debate and transformation.